Six Types of Training and Development Techniques

1.On-the-job Training and Lectures

The two most frequently used kinds of training are on-the-job training and lectures, although little research exists as to the effectiveness of either. It is usually impossible to teach someone everything she needs to know at a location away from the workplace. Thus on-the-job training often supplements other kinds of training, e.g., classroom or off-site training; but on-the-job training is frequently the only form of training. It is usually informal, which means, unfortunately, that the trainer does not concentrate on the training as much as she should, and the trainer may not have a well-articulated picture of what the novice needs to learn.

On-the-job training is not successful when used to avoid developing a training program, though it can be an effective part of a well-coordinated training program.

Lectures are used because of their low cost and their capacity to reach many people. Lectures, which use one-way communication as opposed to interactive learning techniques, are much criticized as a training device.

2. Programmed Instruction (PI)

These devices systematically present information to the learner and elicit a response; they use reinforcement principles to promote appropriate responses. When PI was originally developed in the 1950s, it was thought to be useful only for basic subjects. Today the method is used for skills as diverse as air traffic control, blueprint reading, and the analysis of tax returns.

3. Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI)

With CAI, students can learn at their own pace, as with PI. Because the student interacts with the computer, it is believed by many to be a more dynamic learning device. Educational alternatives can be quickly selected to suit the student’s capabilities, and performance can be monitored continuously. As instruction proceeds, data are gathered for monitoring and improving performance.

4. Audiovisual Techniques

Both television and film extend the range of skills that can be taught and the way information may be presented. Many systems have electronic blackboards and slide projection equipment. The use of techniques that combine audiovisual systems such as closed circuit television and telephones has spawned a new term for this type of training, teletraining. The feature on ” Sesame Street ” illustrates the design and evaluation of one of television’s favorite children’s program as a training device.

5. Simulations

Training simulations replicate the essential characteristics of the real world that are necessary to produce both learning and the transfer of new knowledge and skills to application settings. Both machine and other forms of simulators exist. Machine simulators often have substantial degrees of. physical fidelity; that is, they represent the real world’s operational equipment. The main purpose of simulation, however, is to produce psychological fidelity, that is, to reproduce in the training those processes that will be required on the job. We simulate for a number of reasons, including to control the training environment, for safety, to introduce feedback and other learning principles, and to reduce cost.

6. Business games

They are the direct progeny of war games that have been used to train officers in combat techniques for hundreds of years. Almost all early business games were designed to teach basic business skills, but more recent games also include interpersonal skills. Monopoly might be considered the quintessential business game for young capitalists. It is probably the first place youngsters learned the words mortgage, taxes, and go to jail.

Nokia Mobile Phones – A Breakthrough in World of Telecommunication

If a real breakthrough has been bought in the world of mobiles then its Nokia Mobile phones. They have marked the real beginning of breakthrough in mobile communicating with high performance mobile phones in the market. Their wide range of models for diverse class of people and budget groups suggests that the fact that Nokia never discriminates on the grounds of income and status. They create mobiles for all people and try their level best to input some really useful features in their lower end mobile phones. They have been successful to do that in mid range models and there are many mid range Nokia mobile phones which can give stiff competition to high end mobile phones of other brands.

Their latest is the N series and through this series of mobile phones Nokia has tried to enhance the lives of people to a great extent. These phones are called multimedia computers which are perfect blend of ergonomics and designing. Now one may think that Nokia mobile phones of high end models are quite difficult to use. On the contrary they are easy than one can think of. The easy to use phones have enhanced lives of people and now even end users can take the pleasure of using services like WAP, Bluetooth and alike.

When we talk of high end Nokia mobile phones we must talk about three features which is very common to all high end phones from this Finnish company. Input of all useful features, High sound quality and video calling facility. The features of Nokia N series or E series phones are always useful to one way or the other. You may not use them regularly but once you find their utmost need and the handset comes to your rescue.

The second feature sound quality of Nokia mobile phones is something you can swear upon. The built in speakers themselves gives so much quality sound what would be quality if you use accessories like Nokia Bluetooth Speakers MD-5W. The 3D sound effect and output of exact pitch of musical instruments while you play your favorite numbers is one of the qualities of Nokia mobile phones.

Most of the high end Nokia mobile phones have secondary VGA camera for video calling option. This is a very important feature of Nokia high end mobile phones and you will find this feature only in select models of other brands.

Reasons For Pregnant Women to Wear Maternity Clothes

For many women, pregnancy is a very exciting and exciting time in their lives. Through the pregnancy period, a woman undergoes many physical and emotional changes. When a woman begins to gain weight, she can experience physical discomfort as well as feeling less attractive. The inability to wear one's regular clothes can result in frustration and sadness. The importance of wearing maternity clothing is essential to making a woman look and feel good through the entire term of her pregnancy.

When one thinks of maternity clothing, they often think about drab, unattractive, and baggy clothes. Fortunately, there are maternity clothes on the market that are designed to display quality, comfort, durability, and fashion. There are hundreds of online retailers and traditional 'brick and mortar' stores that sell quality and comfortable maternity clothing.

Physical changes an expectant will include include: gain in weight, larger abdomen, and swollen ankles and fingers. Many maternity clothing providers understand the need for a comfortable pair of maternity pants. Many maternity pants can be worn through or nearly all of the pregnancy term. Maternity pants are available in a wide range of colors, styles, designs, and patterns. They can even include jeans with stretchable waist bands. Maternity pants are sold in a broad range of styles and comfort levels. The stretchable elastic waist bands allow an expectant mother to relax. As well, there are pants that are designed to give a slimming effect.

A pregnant woman can still wear stylish brand name dresses. There are maternity dresses for any time of social setting such as at a formal function or just relaxing around the house. One can wear sun dresses, short-sleeved dresses, long-sleeved dresses, strapless dresses, casual dresses, short dresses, or full length dresses. They come in many styles, colors, designs, and patterns. They are designed to make a woman feel comfortable and feminine, while looking fashionable and they take a maternity photography.

Maternity tops can come in a variety of designs, styles, and colors. These tops are comfortable and fit well to the growing abdomen. They are deigned for current and changing fashion trends. They will make a woman feel attractive as she increases in weight.

Swimwear is another popular form of maternity wear. Popular maternity stores that offer maternity swimwear include: bikinis, one piece suits, and bathing suit bottoms. A pregnant mother can enjoy herself sunbathing or swimming. There are a range of maternity swimwear companies that sell swimwear designed by top selling brands.

A pregnancy does not mean one has to wear dismal clothing. There are many top brands that sell chic and trendy maternity clothing such as Old Navy Maternity, Motherhood Maternity, Gap Maternity, and much more. Wearing trendy and stylish maternity clothing through a pregnancy can make a woman comfortable and attractive, thereby allowing her to focus on the arrival of her new bundle of joy.

An expectant mother's pregnancy does not have to have a time of discomfort and feeling unattractive. There are now many popular brand name maternity wear companies that sell a variety of stylish and comfy clothing to meet the needs of every expectant mother.